Stuff: Keyboard

Mechanical Keyboard and their friends.

Perkenalan keyboard atau papan ketik di dunia per-komputer-an tak pernah lepas dari kebutuhan programmer kala itu. Mereka menggunakan papan ketik sebagai media utama dalam menggunakan komputer. Papan ketik pada tahun 1970an begitu berat karena menggunakan papan sirkuit yang mendeteksi saklar mandiri di bawah setiap tombol. Papan ketik semacam ini memberikan sensasi yang tidak didapatkan papan ketik generasi selanjutnya.

Ducky One 2 Mini Pure White (RGB)

Bagaimana sejarah papan ketik zaman dahulu mungkin bisa dideskripsikan dengan cuplikan artikel wikipedia berikut ini:

In the first electronic keyboards in the early 1970s, the key switches were individual switches inserted into holes in metal frames. These keyboards cost from 80 to 120 USD and were used in mainframe data terminals. The most popular switch types were reed switches (contacts enclosed in a vacuum in a glass capsule, affected by a magnet mounted on the switch plunger).

In the mid-1970s, lower-cost direct-contact key switches were introduced, but their life in switch cycles was much shorter (rated ten million cycles) because they were open to the environment. This became more acceptable, however, for use in computer terminals at the time, which began to see increasingly shorter model lifespans as they advanced.

In 1978, Key Tronic Corporation introduced keyboards with capacitive-based switches, one of the first keyboard technologies not to use self-contained switches.[45] There was simply a sponge pad with a conductive-coated Mylar plastic sheet on the switch plunger, and two half-moon trace patterns on the printed circuit board below. As the key was depressed, the capacitance between the plunger pad and the patterns on the PCB below changed, which was detected by integrated circuits (IC). These keyboards were claimed to have the same reliability as the other "solid-state switch" keyboards such as inductive and Hall-effect, but competitive with direct-contact keyboards. Prices of $60 for keyboards were achieved, and Key Tronic rapidly became the largest independent keyboard manufacturer.

Meanwhile, IBM made their own keyboards, using their own patented technology: Keys on older IBM keyboards[46] were made with a "buckling spring" mechanism, in which a coil spring under the key buckles under pressure from the user's finger, triggering a hammer that presses two plastic sheets (membranes) with conductive traces together, completing a circuit. This produces a clicking sound and gives physical feedback for the typist, indicating that the key has been depressed.

The first electronic keyboards had a typewriter key travel distance of 0.187 inches (4.75 mm), keytops were a half-inch (12.7 mm) high, and keyboards were about two inches (5 cm) thick. Over time, less key travel was accepted in the market, finally landing on 0.110 inches (2.79 mm). Coincident with this, Key Tronic was the first company to introduce a keyboard that was only about one inch thick. And now keyboards measure only about a half-inch thick.

Keytops are an important element of keyboards. In the beginning, keyboard keytops had a "dish shape" on top, like typewriters before them. Keyboard key legends must be extremely durable over tens of millions of depressions, since they are subjected to extreme mechanical wear from fingers and fingernails, and subject to hand oils and creams, so engraving and filling key legends with paint, as was done previously for individual switches, was never acceptable. So, for the first electronic keyboards, the key legends were produced by two-shot (or double-shot, or two-color) molding, where either the key shell or the inside of the key with the key legend was molded first, and then the other color molded second. But, to save cost, other methods were explored, such as sublimation printing and laser engraving, both methods which could be used to print a whole keyboard at the same time.

Initially, sublimation printing, where a special ink is printed onto the keycap surface and the application of heat causes the ink molecules to penetrate and commingle with the plastic modules, had a problem because finger oils caused the molecules to disperse, but then a necessarily very hard clear coating was applied to prevent this. Coincident with sublimation printing, which was first used in high volume by IBM on their keyboards, was the introduction by IBM of single-curved-dish keycaps to facilitate quality printing of key legends by having a consistently curved surface instead of a dish. But one problem with sublimation or laser printing was that the processes took too long and only dark legends could be printed on light-colored keys. On another note, IBM was unique in using separate shells, or "keycaps", on keytop bases. This might have made their manufacturing of different keyboard layouts more flexible, but the reason for doing this was that the plastic material that needed to be used for sublimation printing was different from standard ABS keytop plastic material.

Three final mechanical technologies brought keyboards to where they are today, driving the cost well under $10:

"Monoblock" keyboard designs were developed where individual switch housings were eliminated and a one-piece "monoblock" housing used instead. This was possible because of molding techniques that could provide very tight tolerances for the switch-plunger holes and guides across the width of the keyboard so that the key plunger-to-housing clearances were not too tight or too loose, either of which could cause the keys to bind.
The use of contact-switch membrane sheets under the monoblock. This technology came from flat-panel switch membranes, where the switch contacts are printed inside of a top and bottom layer, with a spacer layer in between, so that when pressure is applied to the area above, a direct electrical contact is made. The membrane layers can be printed by very-high volume, low-cost "reel-to-reel" printing machines, with each keyboard membrane cut and punched out afterwards.
Plastic materials played a very important part in the development and progress of electronic keyboards. Until "monoblocks" came along, GE's "self-lubricating" Delrin was the only plastic material for keyboard switch plungers that could withstand the beating over tens of millions of cycles of lifetime use. Greasing or oiling switch plungers was undesirable because it would attract dirt over time which would eventually affect the feel and even bind the key switches (although keyboard manufacturers would sometimes sneak this into their keyboards, especially if they could not control the tolerances of the key plungers and housings well enough to have a smooth key depression feel or prevent binding). But Delrin was only available in black and white, and was not suitable for keytops (too soft), so keytops use ABS plastic. However, as plastic molding advanced in maintaining tight tolerances, and as key travel length reduced from 0.187-inch to 0.110-inch (4.75 mm to 2.79 mm), single-part keytop/plungers could be made of ABS, with the keyboard monoblocks also made of ABS.

In common use, the term "mechanical keyboard" refers to a keyboard with individual mechanical key switches, each of which contains a fully encased plunger with a spring below it and metallic electrical contacts on a side. The plunger sits on the spring and the key will often close the contacts when the plunger is pressed half-way. Other switches require the plunger to be fully pressed down. The depth at which the plunger must be pressed for the contacts to close is known as the activation distance. Analog keyboards with key switches whose activation distance can be reconfigured through software, optical switches that work by blocking laser beams, and Hall Effect keyboards that use key switches that use a magnet to activate a hall sensor, are also available.

Sumber: Wikipedia

Papan ketik tak lebih dan tak kurang adalah alat bantu input untuk komputer. Seperti mouse, touch pad dan touch screen. Namun, papan ketik tak pernah lepas dari tangan-tangan programmer karena beberapa komputer dengan sistem operasi tertentu memiliki keterbatasan dalam GUI (Graphical User Interface) yaitu tampilan yang dapat menampilkan input selain dari papan ketik. Umumnya sistem operasi yang ditemukan pada server hanya dapat menerima input dari papan ketik. Jadi, tak jarang papan ketik disertakan bersama monitor dalam suatu perangkat komputer, terlepas apakah komputer tersebut untuk server atau desktop/ penggunaan umum.

Ducky One 2 TKL Horizon

Berbagai bentuk keyboard diciptakan untuk menunjang produktifitas dan sisi ergonomic menjadi penting di sini. Gambar yang tercantum di dalam artikel tak lain dari berbagai bentuk yang masih bertahan dan dapat ditemukan di pasaran saat ini. Gambar pertama dinamakan 60% size keyboard yang memiliki karakter minimal untuk layout qwerty. Kalian bisa menemukan layout semacam ini pada laptop berukuran kecil sampai sedang. Gambar kedua dinamakan TKL (Ten Key Less) yang banyak ditemukan pada keyboard para gamers. Keyboard standar yang paling banyak ditemui adalah fullsize/ 100% keyboard menggunakan ANSI layout yang ditampilkan pada gambar di bawah ini.

Ducky One 2 Good in Blue

Selain keyboard standar sebenarnya ada bermacam-macam bentuk lagi seperti 75% keyboard dan sebagainya. Kalian mungkin akan sulit menemuinya di pasaran. Jadi, di sini aku hanya tampilkan papan ketik standar saja. Diagram secara keseluruhan papan ketik ANSI normalnya menganut pada model IBM PC keyboard seperti gambar beserta rinciannya adalah sebagai berikut: